Please acknowledge the use of EM&D Center resources in publications, either listing the specific analytical techniques that were used, such as, for example, "UPS experiments were performed in the UMass Center for Electronic Materials and Devices", or if the entire work has been performed in EM&D Center, "All experiments were performed in the UMass Center for Electronic Materials and Devices."

List of recent representative publications that became possible fully or in part due to EM&D Center.



V.V. Duzhko, B. Dunham, S.J. Rosa, M.D. Cole, A. Paul, Z. A. Page, C. Dimitrakopoulos, and T. Emrick, N-Doped Zwitterionic Fullerenes as Interlayers in Organic and Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices. ACS Energy Lett. 2017, 2, 957. DOI:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00147 



Y. Liu, V.V. Duzhko, Z. A. Page, T. Emrick, and T.P. Russell, Conjugated Polymer Zwitterions: Efficient Interlayer Materials in Organic Electronics, Acc. Chem. Res. 2016, 49, 2478. DOI:10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00402

PD Homyak, Y Liu, JD Harris, F Liu, KR Carter, TP Russell, EB Coughlin, Systematic Fluorination of P3HT: Synthesis of P (3HT-co-3H4FT) s by Direct Arylation Polymerization, Characterization, and Device Performance in OPVs, Macromolecules 49 (8), 3028-3037, 2016.

ZA Page, Y Liu, E Puodziukynaite, TP Russell, T Emrick, Hydrophilic Conjugated Polymers Prepared by Aqueous Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons Coupling, Macromolecules 49 (7), 2526-2532, 2016.

Y Liu, LA Renna, M Bag, ZA Page, P Kim, J Choi, T Emrick, High Efficiency Tandem Thin-Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells with a Graded Recombination Layer, ACS applied materials & interfaces 8 (11), 7070-7076, 2016.

Y Liu, M Bag, LA Renna, ZA Page, P Kim, T Emrick, D Venkataraman, Understanding Interface Engineering for High‐Performance Fullerene/Perovskite Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells, Advanced Energy Materials 6 (2), 2016.

VV Duzhko, Physical aging and charge transport in poly (3‐hexylthiophene), physica status solidi (a) 213 (2), 419-423, 2016.



Y Liu, ZA Page, TP Russell, T Emrick, Finely Tuned Polymer Interlayers Enhance Solar Cell Efficiency, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 54 (39), 11485-11489, 2015.

Y Liu, Z Page, S Ferdous, F Liu, P Kim, T Emrick, T Russell, Dual Functional Zwitterionic Fullerene Interlayer for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells, Advanced Energy Materials 5 (14), 2015.

Y Liu, L Zhang, H Lee, HW Wang, A Santala, F Liu, Y Diao, AL Briseno, NDI‐Based Small Molecule as Promising Nonfullerene Acceptor for Solution‐Processed Organic Photovoltaics, Advanced Energy Materials 5 (12), 2015.

P Homyak, Y Liu, S Ferdous, F Liu, TP Russell, EB Coughlin, Effect of Pendant Functionality in Thieno [3, 4-b] thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene Polymers for OPVs, Chemistry of Materials 27 (2), 443-449, 2015.

Hongyu Wang, Yimin Ding, Yanbang Lai, Zhiwei Sun, Yao Liu, Bin Jiang, Ming Chen, Jian Yao, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Ethynylene-linked benzo [1, 2-b: 4, 5-b′] dithiophene-alt-diketopyrrolopyrrole alternating copolymer: optoelectronic properties, film morphology and photovoltaic applications, Journal of Materials Chemistry A 3 (24), 12972-12981, 2015.

S. Karak, Z.A. Page, J.S. Tinkham, P.M. Lahti, T. Emrick, and V.V. Duzhko, “Raising Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells with Electrotropic Additives”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2015, 106, 103303.

Hyunbok Lee, Egle Puodziukynaite, Yue Zhang, John C. Stephenson, Lee J. Richter, Daniel A. Fischer, Dean M. DeLongchamp, Todd Emrick, and Alejandro L. Briseno “Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)s as Electrode Modifiers for Inverted Organic Electronics”,  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, pp 540–549, [DOI: 10.1021/ja512148d]

M Bag, LA Renna, RY Adhikari, S Karak, F Liu, PM Lahti, TP Russell, Kinetics of ion transport in perovskite active layers and its implications for active layer stability, Journal of the American Chemical Society 137 (40), 13130-1313, 15, 2015.

F Liu, S Ferdous, E Schaible, A Hexemer, M Church, X Ding, C Wang, Fast Printing and In Situ Morphology Observation of Organic Photovoltaics Using Slot‐Die Coating, Advanced Materials 27 (5), 886-891, 4, 2015.

ZA Page, F Liu, TP Russell, T Emrick, Tuning the energy gap of conjugated polymer zwitterions for efficient interlayers and solar cells, Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 53 (2), 327-336, 3, 2015.



S Ferdous, F Liu, D Wang, TP Russell, Solvent‐Polarity‐Induced Active Layer Morphology Control in Crystalline Diketopyrrolopyrrole‐Based Low Band Gap Polymer Photovoltaics, Advanced Energy Materials 4 (2), 2014.

S Koyuncu, HW Wang, F Liu, KB Toga, W Gu, TP Russell, A novel complementary absorbing donor–acceptor pair in block copolymers based on single material organic photovoltaics, Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2 (9), 2993-2998, 2014.

F Liu, L Zhang, Y Zhang, SCB Mannsfeld, TP Russell, AL Briseno, Interpenetrating morphology based on highly crystalline small molecule and PCBM blends, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2 (44), 9368-9374, 2014.

Y Gu, C Wang, F Liu, J Chen, OE Dyck, G Duscher, TP Russell, Guided crystallization of P3HT in ternary blend solar cell based on P3HT: PCPDTBT: PCBM, Energy & Environmental Science 7 (11), 3782-3790, 2014.

F Liu, W Zhao, JR Tumbleston, C Wang, Y Gu, D Wang, AL Briseno, Understanding the morphology of PTB7: PCBM blends in organic photovoltaics, Advanced Energy Materials 4 (5), 2014.

BAG Hammer, MA Reyes-Martinez, FA Bokel, F Liu, TP Russell, Reversible, Self Cross-Linking Nanowires from Thiol-Functionalized Polythiophene Diblock Copolymers, ACS applied materials & interfaces 6 (10), 7705-7711, 2014.

S Chantarak, F Liu, T Emrick, TP Russell, Solvent‐Assisted Orientation of Poly (3‐hexylthiophene)‐Functionalized CdSe Nanorods Under an Electric Field, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 215 (17), 1647-1653, 2014.

F Liu, D Chen, C Wang, K Luo, W Gu, AL Briseno, JWP Hsu, TP Russell, Molecular Weight Dependence of the Morphology in P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells, ACS applied materials & interfaces 6 (22), 19876-1988, 2014.

Page, Z. A., Liu, F., Russell, T. P. and Emrick, T. “Tuning the energy gap of conjugated polymer zwitterions for efficient interlayers and solar cells” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 2014, 53, 327–336. [doi: 10.1002/pola.27349]

Hyunbok Lee, Yue Zhang, Lei Zhang, Timothy Mirabito, Edmund K. Burnett, Stefan Trahan, Ali Reza Mohebbi, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Fred Wudl and Alejandro L. BrisenoRubicene: a molecular fragment of C70 for use in organic field-effect transistors, J. Mater. Chem. C 2014, 2, 3361-3366. [DOI: 10.1039/C3TC32117G]

Sujun Wei; Jianlong Xia; Emma J. Dell; Yivan Jiang; Rui Song; Hyunbok Lee; Philip Rodenbough; Alejandro L. Briseno; Luis M. Campos “Bandgap Engineering through Controlled Oxidation of Polythiophenes” Angew. Chem. Int. Edition 2014, 53, 1832–1836, [DOI: 10.1002/anie.201309398].

Egle Puodziukynaite, Hsin-Wei Wang, Jimmy Lawrence, Adam J. Wise, Thomas P. Russell, Michael D. Barnes, and Todd Emrick “Azulene Methacrylate Polymers: Synthesis, Electronic Properties, and Solar Cell Fabrication” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 11043–11049. [DOI: 10.1021/ja504670k]

Supravat Karak, Paul J. Homnick, Lawrence A. Renna, D. Venkataraman, Joel T. Mague, and Paul M. Lahti “Solution-Processed Photovoltaics with a 3,6-Bis(diarylamino)fluoren-9-ylidene Malononitrile”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces  2014, 16476–16480 [DOI: 10.1021/am504993j]

S. Karak, P.J. Homnick, A.M. Della Pelle, Y. Bae, V.V. Duzhko, F. Liu, T.P. Russell, P.M. Lahti, S. Thayumanavan, “Crystallinity and Morphology Effects on a Solvent-Processed Solar Cell using a Triarylamine-Substituted Squaraine”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 11376-11384.

S. Karak, J.-A. Lim, S. Ferdous, V.V. Duzhko and A.L. Briseno, “Photovoltaic Effect at the Schottky Interface with Organic Single Crystal Rubrene”, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014, 24, 1039-1046 (Journal cover - frontispiece).

Y Liu, F Liu, HW Wang, D Nordlund, Z Sun, S Ferdous, TP Russell, Sequential Deposition: Optimization of Solvent Swelling for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells, ACS applied materials & interfaces 7 (1), 653-661, 2014.

Z.A. Page, Y. Liu, V.V. Duzhko, T.P. Russell and T. Emrick, “Fulleropyrrolidine interlayers lower cathode work function to raise organic solar cell efficiency”, Science 2014, 346, 441-444.

S. Karak, F. Liu, T.P. Russell and V.V. Duzhko, “Bulk Charge Carrier Transport in Push-Pull Type Organic Semiconductor”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 20904-20912.

Bag, Monojit; Gehan, Timothy S.; Renna, Lawrence A.; Algaier, Dana D.; Lahti, Paul M. ; and Venkataraman, Dhandapani  Fabrication Conditions for Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Cells from Aqueous Dispersions of Nanoparticles  RSC Advances, 4, 45325-45331 (2014).  [DOI: 10.1039/C4RA07463GExternal link]

Timothy S. Gehan, Monojit Bag, Lawrence A. Renna, Xiaobo Shen, Dana D. Algaier, Paul M. Lahti, Thomas P. Russell, and Dhandapani Venkataraman “Multiscale Active Layer Morphologies for Organic Photovoltaics Through Self-Assembly of Nanospheres” Nano Letters 2014 14 (9), 5238-5243 [DOI: 10.1021/nl502209s]

Han, Xu; Bag, Monojit; Gehan, Timothy S.; Venkataraman, Dhandapani; and Maroudas, Dimitrios  Analysis of hole transport in thin films and nanoparticle assemblies of poly(3-hexylthiophene  Chem. Phys. Lett., 610-611, 273-277 (2014).  [DOI: 10.1016/j.cplett.2014.07.022]

Page, Zachariah; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P.; and Emrick, Todd  “Rapid, facile synthesis of conjugated polymer zwitterions in ionic liquids”  Chemical Science, 5, 2368-2373 (2014). 



F Liu, Y Gu, X Shen, S Ferdous, HW Wang, TP Russell, Characterization of the morphology of solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics, Progress in Polymer Science 38 (12), 1990-2052, 2013.

F Liu, C Wang, JK Baral, L Zhang, JJ Watkins, AL Briseno, TP Russell, Relating chemical structure to device performance via morphology control in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low band gap polymers, Journal of the American Chemical Society 135 (51), 19248-19259, 2013.

H Wang, F Liu, L Bu, J Gao, C Wang, W Wei, TP Russell, The Role of Additive in Diketopyrrolopyrrole‐Based Small Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells, Advanced Materials 25 (45), 6519-6525, 2013.

M Bag, TS Gehan, DD Algaier, F Liu, G Nagarjuna, PM Lahti, TP Russell, Efficient Charge Transport in Assemblies of Surfactant‐Stabilized Semiconducting Nanoparticles, Advanced Materials 25 (44), 6411-6415, 2013.

Bag, TS Gehan, DD Algaier, F Liu, G Nagarjuna, PM Lahti, TP Russell, Charge Transport: Efficient Charge Transport in Assemblies of Surfactant‐Stabilized Semiconducting Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 44/2013), Advanced Materials 25 (44), 6410-6410, 2013.

Y Huang, F Liu, X Guo, W Zhang, Y Gu, J Zhang, CC Han, TP Russell, Manipulating backbone structure to enhance low band gap polymer photovoltaic performance, Advanced Energy Materials 3 (7), 930-937, 2013.

JW Jung, F Liu, TP Russell, WH Jo, Semi-crystalline random conjugated copolymers with panchromatic absorption for highly efficient polymer solar cells, Energy & Environmental Science 6 (11), 3301-3307, 2013.

JW Jung, F Liu, TP Russell, WH Jo, Synthesis of pyridine-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole and its use as a building block of low band-gap polymers for efficient polymer solar cells, Chemical Communications 49 (76), 8495-8497, 2013.

Z.A. Page, V.V. Duzhko and T. Emrick, “Conjugated Thiophene-containing Polymer Zwitterions: Direct Synthesis and Thin Film Electronic Properties”, Macromolecules 2013, 46, 344-351.

B.M. Kobilka, B.J. Hale, M.D. Ewan, A.V. Dubrovskiy, T.L. Nelson, V.V. Duzhko, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Influence of heteroatoms on photovoltaic performance of donor-acceptor copolymers based on 2,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]difurans and diketopyrrolopyrrole”, Polym. Chem. 2013, 4, 5329-5336.

F. Liu, Z.A. Page, V.V. Duzhko, T.P. Russell and T. Emrick, “Conjugated Zwitterionic Polymers as Efficient Interlayers in Organic Solar Cells”, Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 6868-6873.

X. Shen, V.V. Duzhko and T.P. Russell, “A Study on the Correlation between Structure and Hole Transport in Semi-Crystalline Regioregular P3HT”, Adv. Energy Mater. 2013, 3, 263.